How far is China from new high-efficiency plant protection machinery?

[China Agricultural Machinery Industry News] Plant protection is an important link in China's agricultural production, but also a weak link, and plant protection machinery is a short-board. China's plant protection machinery still stays at the level of developed countries in the 1950s. Large-capacity and extensive application techniques not only cause excessive use of pesticides, low utilization rate, and poor effect, but also cause agricultural non-point source pollution, increased resistance to pests and diseases, etc. problem. The development of new plant protection machinery represented by self-propelled sprayer sprayer and plant protection drone has become the key to promoting the zero-growth action of pesticides and filling the entire process of mechanical production of short plates.
How far is China from the new plant protection machinery?
How important? Plant protection machinery is the key to the success of zero-growth operations
There are about 120 kinds of major agricultural pests and diseases in China, including 14 kinds of pests and diseases and about 100 kinds of second classes. The annual occurrence area is 7 billion mu, which is a huge hazard. “In these years, the state has vigorously promoted plant protection activities such as pest and disease monitoring, one spray, three defenses, and unified defense. The area of ​​prevention and control has reached 8 billion mu, and the annual recoverable losses account for about 17% of China's total grain output.” Ministry of Agriculture Planting Management Zhang Lisheng, a researcher at the Phytosanitary Division of the Plant Protection Department, said at the 3rd China Agricultural Robot Contest and Plant Protection Lecture.
The core of plant protection is the application of pesticides. Although China's pesticide production technology is at the advanced level in the world, because China's plant protection machinery still stays in the backward level of developed countries in the 1950s, there are about 58 million hand-held manual (electric) sprayers, accounting for 93.5% of the social security of plant protection machinery. . This large-capacity and extensive application technology has led to excessive use of pesticides and low utilization rate. The amount of pesticides in China has increased from 230,000 tons in 2000 to 320,000 tons in 2014, with an average annual growth rate of 8%. The dosage per unit area of ​​pesticides is 2.3 times that of the United States and twice that of the European Union. The use of pesticides per unit area is 14.7 times that of the United States and 9.3 times that of the European Union.
The application of a large number of pesticides has also caused problems such as excessive pesticide residues, crop phytotoxicity and agricultural non-point source pollution, which has increased the resistance of pests and diseases and the decline of biodiversity. For example, the abuse of bisamide insecticides in Linchuan District of Fuzhou City, Jiangxi Province is common in the prevention and control of rice pests. In 2013, it was found that the resistance of bismuth quinone to bisamides increased, and the control effect decreased. In particular, in 2014, localized areas were re-emerged, and it was found that the bisamides could not control the harm of the mites.
“So, the zero-growth action of pesticides launched by the Ministry of Agriculture should focus on reducing the amount of pesticides through scientific application.” Zhao Qing, a researcher at the National Agricultural Technology Center, said that the key to the “control, replacement, fine, and unified” mobile technology path is large and medium-sized. Plant protection machinery replaces inefficient small plant protection machinery. Because the space for low-toxic and low-residue pesticides to replace high-toxic and high-residue pesticides is not large, the level of pesticide research and development in China has been relatively high, and the development of a new pesticide is costly and the cycle is very long. Therefore, the promotion of plant protection machinery to improve the utilization rate of pesticides The space is bigger. This can also greatly improve the efficiency of plant protection operations, promote the promotion of unified prevention and control, change the chaotic situation of a family of scattered drugs, and improve the ability to control pests and diseases.
According to calculations, the plant protection machinery can greatly improve the utilization rate of pesticides by improving the technical performance of the atomization effect, droplet size, penetration performance and distribution uniformity, and the pesticide utilization rate of the self-propelled spray bar sprayer is about 50%. It is 15% higher than the liquid pump sprayer, 20% to 40% of the manual sprayer, and 30% to 50% of the knapsack mobile fog machine. The working efficiency (in a single unit) is 85 times that of the manual sprayer. 15 times the motorized sprayer.
Where is it difficult? Farmers’ awareness is not enough, and the amount of subsidies is not high.
However, the reporter was surprised to find that the self-propelled boom sprayer with such good performance did not get a large area application. Huafeng Agricultural Professional Cooperative of Tianmen City, Hubei Province has transferred 86,000 mu of land, with 268 members and 460 sets of agricultural machinery and equipment, with an output value of 230 million yuan. It is a modern agricultural cooperative that is uncompromising. "Our farming, planting, harvesting, and drying are all high-level large-scale machine operations, but the plant protection machinery is a short board. I used the plant protection drone but the effect is not good. Basically, I still rely on people to use a motorized sprayer to fight drugs. Wu Huaping, chairman of the cooperative, said that in 2014, he talked with Yongjia staff at the Wuhan Agricultural Machinery Expo for three hours to understand how the large-scale plant protection machinery was going, and it was not used until 2015.
Yongjia said that Yongjia is Shandong Yongjia Power Co., Ltd., which is a manufacturer of new self-propelled plant protection machinery in China. Although as the president unit of the Plant Protection and Cleaning Machinery Branch of the China Agricultural Machinery Industry Association and the main unit of the National Agricultural Self-propelled Plant Protection Machinery Innovation Alliance, the general manager of the company, Chen Yulin, talked about the difficulty of product promotion.
“In 2009, we started self-propelled plant protection machines. In 2010, we sold 5 units, 35 units in 2011, 70 units in 2012, 100 units in 2013, 300 units in 2014, and 700 units in 2015.” Chen Yulin said that it can be said. We have done very hard these years, and if we don't have the company's original garden machinery business support, it will be long gone. Moreover, 70% of the sales volume is the government's unified defense project, which is not a good thing, indicating that market recognition is still not enough.
There are many reasons for this situation. The main factor is that farmers do not know or recognize. After the reform and opening up, the backpack-type manual (electric) sprayer was widely used by farmers. People used to carry the medicine bucket to fight drugs. As a new thing, the self-propelled plant protection machine allows farmers to accept the demand process, even the new agricultural management entities such as the cooperative director and the large-scale farming enterprises.
“Like the early application of the wheat harvester, farmers are worried that the cut is not clean. Now farmers are worried that such a big machine will crush the crops.” Chen Yulin said, so we can only rely on field trials one after another to tell the farmers to press The damage rate is very low and the application effect is very good. In the past 6 years, we spent 60 million yuan to make 2,000 demonstrations, and the market development speed is relatively slow. However, the experimental demonstration has to continue, and the awareness of the new business entity can be gradually promoted.
“Another problem is historical. Because plant protection machinery is mainly manual for a long time, there is no power system, and it is not considered to be agricultural machinery. Therefore, the Ministry of Agriculture’s Agricultural Mechanization Department controls agricultural machinery, while the planting industry manages plant protection machinery.” Chen Yulin According to the analysis, although the plant protection machinery enters the agricultural machinery purchase subsidy catalogue, the farmers need to apply across the department, first apply to the plant protection station, and then apply to the Agricultural Machinery Bureau. Moreover, the current subsidy lacks grading standards and does not reflect the advanced level. Because the self-propelled plant protection machine products on the market are not uniform, there are 30,000 yuan and 150,000 yuan. In 2016, the state subsidy standard for self-propelled plant protection machines was 31,500 yuan. Farmers would have to pressurize products with high quality.
Breaking the bureau? The rise of agricultural services is expected to open up a blue ocean
"Although it is very difficult now, the plant protection machinery will definitely be a blue ocean in the field of agricultural machinery in China." Chen Yulin said optimistically that we want to use the China Agricultural Machinery Contest to enter the agricultural machinery industry this year, let people realize that plant protection machinery is also agricultural machinery, and it is not ordinary. Agricultural machinery. Plant protection machinery can be applied to all crops, and can even extend the functions of sowing, spreading, etc. Unlike wheat harvesters, which only receive wheat, rice harvesters can only receive rice, and they are used once a year.
“The plant protection machine has a wide range of applications and long working hours, which is very suitable for the development of agricultural services.” Zhu Qinghai, chairman of Linyi Haifeng Plant Protection Co., Ltd., Shandong Province, said that I am going to order a batch of self-propelled sprayer sprayers from Yongjia. Establish a plant protection operation service team, which is a fight drug team. Linyi is a large agricultural city with diverse planting structures, including wheat, corn, peanuts and rice, with a working time of at least 100 days a year. A plant protection machine can operate 200 acres per day, according to the control fee of 15~20 yuan per mu, earning 3,000~4000 yuan per day, eliminating fuel consumption and labor costs, and recovering the purchase cost of 150,000 yuan within one year.
Zhu Qinghai’s agricultural plant protection service was also forced out. He was originally a pesticide distributor in Linyi City, and he was worried about the embarrassing agricultural resources. Plant protection machinery opened the way for him. He integrated his original retailers distributed in the county and village, and equipped them with self-propelled sprayer sprayers, from pesticide sales to plant protection services. When the free-time retailers work together, when the job information is combined, the personnel become a fight-fighting team, and the day-to-day money is paid, thus solving the problem of high wages for the drug-playing team members.
Through the development of agricultural services, there are also pharmaceutical companies and fertilizer enterprises. This year, Shandong Yongjia relies on 4S shop and Shandong Binnong Technology Co., Ltd., Hebei Weiyuan Biochemical (12.100, -0.07, -0.58%) Pesticide Co., Ltd., Shandong Jinzheng The large (7.810, -0.10, -1.26%) Ecological Engineering Co., Ltd. jointly built the agricultural service system and entered the cooperative implementation stage in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan, Shandong, Hebei, Henan and Heilongjiang.
Making full use of plant protection machinery to develop agricultural services, from selling products to selling services is becoming a new hot spot in China's agricultural resources sector. Although the mechanization of plant protection has just embarked on the journey, the comprehensive agricultural services it brings will reconstruct the ecology of the agricultural industry.
(Original title: Say goodbye to "people back barrels", we still have a long way to go)

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