Effect of Long-term Fertilization on N, P, K of Vegetable Soils in North Anhui Province

As a kind of soil in cultivated soil, vegetable land soil is characterized by its most intensive cultivation, farming, fertilization, irrigation, and other soil management measures, which accelerates soil maturation and accelerates the transformation and migration of soil materials. In particular, due to the continuous application of various fertilizers in large quantities, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium nutrients accumulated in vegetable soils were greatly accumulated.

In Anhui Huaihuai North area, there is a large area of ​​vegetable soil distribution, including the installation of vegetable soil and ordinary greenhouse vegetable soil, according to the survey, the cultivation of vegetable soil in the north of Anhui Province per acre of nitrogen per year, phosphorus, potassium fertilizer Up to 3500~4500kg, due to continuous large-scale application of chemical fertilizers, resulting in deterioration of physical and chemical properties of vegetable soil, soil compaction, soil compaction, structural deterioration, soil acidification, increased salt content, accumulation of toxic and hazardous substances, vegetable production, reduced efficiency, The quality of vegetables deteriorated, and some of the vegetable fields that were planted for a long time were abandoned and the vegetables could not be grown continuously. Therefore, the soil N, P and K detectors were used to understand the nutrient accumulation of vegetable soils in the north of Anhui Province, and the reasonable amount of fertilizer and application methods were determined, which was necessary for the local vegetable production. experiment result shows:

1. Differences in Phosphorus Accumulation in Vegetable and Grain Fields Soil Total phosphorus and available phosphorus in vegetable soils and its adjacent grain fields can be seen from the experimental data. The total phosphorus content in the soil of the grain field changes greatly, and the highest value in the fluvo-aquic soil is 764.4. Mg/kg, while the content of total phosphorus in shajiang black soil and yellow cinnamon soil is about 300 mg/kg, which is a difference of more than two times. In the natural conditions, the total phosphorus content in the soil depends on the parent material. The total phosphorus content in the parent material of the Yellow River is relatively high. Although the grain fertilizer is generally applied in the soil every year, there is no total phosphorus content in the soil due to the small application amount. Have a big impact.

2. Differences in Soil Organic Matter Accumulation in Vegetable and Grain Fields Soil organic matter content is one of the important indicators of soil fertility. Increasing soil organic matter content can increase soil fertility. The organic matter content of the test soil can be seen through the experimental data, the soil organic matter content in the vegetable field soil has an increasing trend compared with that in the grain field soil, but the increase range is greater, and the soil organic matter formed in the fluvo-aquic soil The content increased more. For example, the content of soil organic matter in Huaiyuan vegetable field increased by 74.6% compared with the content of organic matter in its neighboring grain fields. However, the organic matter content of vegetable soil grown on shajiang black soil increased less.
In addition, we can also see that the soil organic matter content in the vegetable fields is generally lower than that of ordinary plastic greenhouses. For example, the soils in the Guzheng and Amaranth fields are all soils in the greenhouse, while the soils in Huaiyuan and Fengyang are common plastic greenhouse soils. The former, the soil organic matter accumulation was significantly lower than the latter. From the perspective of soil organic matter content in soils, the soil organic matter content in grain fields and vegetable garden soils gradually decreased with increasing depth. The organic matter accumulation in vegetable soils exceeds that of grain fields, which is directly related to the local farmers' normal application of organic fertilizers.

The content of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in vegetable field and grain field soil The content of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in vegetable field and grain field soil can be seen from the experimental data, the ammonium in vegetable soil formed on fluvo-aquic soil. Nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen contents and their distribution in the soil were different. Compared with the two soils, the ammonium nitrogen content did not change significantly. For example, the content of ammonium nitrogen in the grain layer of the grain field soil was 6.42mg/kg. The content of ammonium nitrogen in vegetable soil for 15 years was 7.15mg/kg. No matter in grain or vegetable soil, ammonium nitrogen content did not change significantly in soil. Tillage soil and
Compared with the 40-60cm soil layer, the ammonium nitrogen content increased only slightly. This phenomenon is consistent with the relevant reports. It can also be seen from Table 1 that the soil nitrate content in vegetable soils has changed greatly compared with that in general grain soils. In the 0-60 cm soil layer, the average nitrate nitrogen content in vegetable soils is 31.53 mg/kg. Kg, but the nitrate content of soil in adjacent dry farmland is only 4.18mg/kg, a difference of 7 times.

4. Differences in available potassium content between vegetable and grain fields Soil available potassium includes water-soluble potassium and exchangeable potassium. It is a highly bioavailable form of potassium, and its content directly affects the potassium nutrition of the plant. The results showed that the soil available K content increased significantly in vegetable field soils compared with general grain soils. The highest available K content in vegetable soils was determined to be 586.1 mg/kg, and the lowest was 266.8 mg/kg. The highest available potassium content in the grain field is only about 150 mg/kg. Obviously, this is due to the heavy application of chemical potash all year round.
From the experimental data, it can also be seen that the amount of available potassium in the soil of the vegetable field is not related to the length of the growing season, and it is not as obvious as the soil nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient content increases with the growth time of the vegetable, such as 12 years of vegetable soil 0 The available potassium content in the ~20cm soil layer was 576.5mg/kg, while that of the vegetable crop was only 348.6mg/kg in 16 years. In the soil of vegetable fields, the available potassium content of soil is not only higher in plough layer soil, but also higher in the middle and lower part of soil, such as available potassium content in 40-60cm soil layer of vegetable soil formed on yellow cinnamon soil. It is 208.4 mg/kg, and the available potassium in the adjacent dry land is only 130.5 mg/k, and the downshift of soil available potassium in the soil is very obvious. It is also worth pointing out that even in the soil with light soil texture, the soil available potassium has a high accumulation. For example, Huaiyuan vegetable soil, its soil texture is sandy loam, and the available potassium content is higher than that of grain soil. Increased 107.3%.
5. Available N, P, K abundances in vegetable soils The abundance of available N, P, and K in vegetable soils differs significantly from that of general grain crops, according to Zhang Yongsong's classification of N, P, and K in vegetable soils. The available N, P and K contents of vegetable soils in the north of Anhui Province can be found that the available phosphorus content of the soil is at a very high level, and the available phosphorus content in the 0-20 cm soil layer of all vegetable soils is higher than 100 mg/kg. The available potassium content in soil was higher than 260 mg/kg, which also belonged to higher levels. We also determined the content of alkaline dissolved nitrogen in the 0-20 cm soil layer of these vegetable fields. The content ranged from 136.8 to 237.4 mg/kg. The soil formed on the fluvo-aquic soil had a lower content of alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen and was found on sandy black soil. The content of alkaline dissolved nitrogen in the vegetable soil was higher. Compared with the experimental data, the content of alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen in vegetable soil was in the lack of suitable level. Based on the above analysis, we believe that the management of soil and fertilizer in vegetable plots in northern Fujian should be: stabilizing the amount of potash fertilizer, reducing the amount of phosphate fertilizer, and appropriately increasing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer.

Summary: The soil of vegetable plots in the north of Anhui Province was used as the test soil, and its adjacent grain field was used as a control to study the changes and distribution characteristics of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in vegetable soils. The results showed that: after prolonged cultivation of vegetables, vegetable soil The N, P and K nutrients changed differently. Compared with the general grain field, the content of ammonium nitrogen in the vegetable soil did not change significantly, while the nitrate nitrogen content in the vegetable soil increased significantly. The nitrate in the vegetable soil soil was 0-60 cm. Nitrogen content is generally 3 to 20 times higher than that of adjacent grain fields. Phosphorus accumulation in vegetable soils is particularly noticeable and mainly accumulates in 0-40 cm soil layers. Total phosphorus accumulation in vegetable soils is 1 to 5 times that in grain fields. The available phosphorus accumulation amount is 7~20 times of that in the grain field; the available potassium content in the vegetable layer of the vegetable field is also significantly higher than that of the grain field soil, which is about 0.6~4 times that of the grain field soil. The longer the cultivation of vegetables, the higher the accumulation of soil nutrients.

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